The incidence of pulmonary fungal disease has increased substantially over the past two decades; Aspergillus species being the most common of these. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate in immuno‑compromised patients including those undergoing hematological stem cell or solid organ transplantation, (particularly lung transplants) and some patients in critical care, including those with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillus. Aspergillus infection also plays an important role in severe asthma and cystic fibrosis and has been correlated with poorer clinical outcome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic lung infections with Aspergillus can leave patients with extensive and permanent lung damage, requiring lifetime antifungal treatment.
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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
ABPA is a pulmonary disorder caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus Fumigatus. Allergic fungal airways disease (AFAD) includes patients in which IgE sensitization and associated airway colonization with A. fumigatus, associated with poor disease control. AFAD is estimated to occur in 50% of patients with severe asthma.
Armstead J, Morris J, Denning DW (2014) Multi-Country Estimate of Different Manifestations of Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis. PLoS ONE 9(6): e98502
Denning et al. Clinical and Translational Allergy 2014, 4:14 Armstead, Plos 1 June 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 6
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Chronic forms of pulmonary aspergillosis consist of simple aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA), and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) are estimated to affect ~1M patients worldwide